- Ancient tools found in India undermine the “out of Africa” hypothesis
- Out of Africa, some of India’s plans
- The Middle Paleolithic toolbox
It has been estimated that from a population of 2, to 5, individuals in Africa, only a small group, possibly as few as to 1, people, crossed the Red Sea. Though the straits were never completely closed, they were narrow enough and there may have been islands in between to have enabled crossing using simple rafts. The dating of the Southern Dispersal is a matter of dispute. Stone tools discovered below the layers of ash disposed in India may point to a pre-Toba dispersal but the source of the tools is disputed.
A fossil of a modern human dated to 54, years ago was found in Manot Cave in Israel, named Manot 1 ,  though the dating was questioned by Groucutt et al.
- 385,000-year-old evidence for much earlier meetings between African and Indian hominins.?
- Recent African origin of modern humans - Wikipedia?
- Recent African origin of modern humans.
- Out of Africa - Wikipedia.
It is thought that Australia was inhabited around 65,, years ago. As of , the earliest evidence of humans in Australia is at least 65, years old,   while McChesney stated that. This very early migration into Australia is also supported by Rasmussen et al. Fossils from Lake Mungo, Australia , have been dated to about 42, years ago.
Tianyuan man from China has a probable date range between 38, and 42, years ago, while Liujiang man from the same region has a probable date range between 67, and , years ago. According to Macaulay et al. This group then branched, some moving into Europe and others heading east into Asia. The first lineage to branch off from Mitochondrial Eve is L0.
It is also found among the Mbuti people. The macro haplogroups M and N , which are the lineages of the rest of the world outside Africa, descend from L3. L3 is about 84, years old and haplogroup M and N are about 63, years old. Of all the lineages present in Africa, only the female descendants of one lineage, mtDNA haplogroup L3 , are found outside Africa.
If there had been several migrations, one would expect descendants of more than one lineage to be found. L3's female descendants, the M and N haplogroup lineages, are found in very low frequencies in Africa although haplogroup M1 populations are very ancient and diversified in North and North-east Africa and appear to be more recent arrivals.
A possible explanation is that these mutations occurred in East Africa shortly before the exodus and became the dominant haplogroups after the departure through the founder effect. Alternatively, the mutations may have arisen shortly afterwards. Results from mtDNA collected from aboriginal Malaysians called Orang Asli and the creation of a phylogenetic tree indicate that the hapologroups M and N share characteristics with original African groups from approximately 85, years ago and share characteristics with sub-haplogroups among coastal south-east Asian regions, such as Australasia, the Indian subcontinent and throughout continental Asia, which had dispersed and separated from its African origins approximately 65, years ago.
This southern coastal dispersion would have occurred before the dispersion through the Levant approximately 45, years ago. Evidence of the coastal migration is thought to have been destroyed by the rise in sea levels during the Holocene epoch. The group that crossed the Red Sea travelled along the coastal route around Arabia and Persia until reaching India. The indigenous people of the Andaman Islands also belong to the M lineage. The Andamanese are thought to be offshoots of some of the earliest inhabitants in Asia because of their long isolation from the mainland.
They are evidence of the coastal route of early settlers that extends from India to Thailand and Indonesia all the way to Papua New Guinea. The proportion of haplogroup M increases eastwards from Arabia to India; in eastern India, M outnumbers N by a ratio of 3: Crossing into Southeast Asia, haplogroup N mostly in the form of derivatives of its R subclade reappears as the predominant lineage.
A study of African, European and Asian populations, found greater genetic diversity among Africans than among Eurasians, and that genetic diversity among Eurasians is largely a subset of that among Africans, supporting the out of Africa model. Based on this evidence, the study concluded that human populations encountered novel selective pressures as they expanded out of Africa.
According to this study, Papua New Guineans continued to be exposed to selection for dark skin color so that, although these groups are distinct from Africans in other places, the allele for dark skin color shared by contemporary Africans, Andamanese and New Guineans is an archaism. A study by Gurdasani et al.
Another promising route towards reconstructing human genetic genealogy is via the JC virus JCV , a type of human polyomavirus which is carried by 70—90 percent of humans and which is usually transmitted vertically, from parents to offspring, suggesting codivergence with human populations. For this reason, JCV has been used as a genetic marker for human evolution and migration. From this Shackelton et al. Evidence for archaic human species descended from Homo heidelbergensis having interbred with modern humans outside of Africa, was discovered in the s. This concerns primarily Neanderthal admixture in all modern populations except for Sub-Saharan Africans but evidence has also been presented for Denisova hominin admixture in Australasia i.
Archaic admixture in some Sub-Saharan African populations hunter-gatherer groups Biaka Pygmies and San , derived from archaic hominins that broke away from the modern human lineage around , years, was discovered in In addition to genetic analysis, Petraglia et al. He proposed that the stone tools could be dated to 35 ka in South Asia, and the new technology might be influenced by environmental change and population pressure.
The cladistic relationship of humans with the African apes was suggested by Charles Darwin after studying the behaviour of African apes , one of which was displayed at the London Zoo. Haeckel argued that humans were more closely related to the primates of South-east Asia and rejected Darwin's African hypothesis. In the Descent of Man , Darwin speculated that humans had descended from apes, which still had small brains but walked upright, freeing their hands for uses which favoured intelligence; he thought such apes were African:.
In each great region of the world the living mammals are closely related to the extinct species of the same region. It is, therefore, probable that Africa was formerly inhabited by extinct apes closely allied to the gorilla and chimpanzee ; and as these two species are now man's nearest allies, it is somewhat more probable that our early progenitors lived on the African continent than elsewhere.
But it is useless to speculate on this subject, for an ape nearly as large as a man, namely the Dryopithecus of Lartet, which was closely allied to the anthropomorphous Hylobates , existed in Europe during the Upper Miocene period; and since so remote a period the earth has certainly undergone many great revolutions, and there has been ample time for migration on the largest scale. In there were hardly any human fossils of ancient hominins available.
Almost fifty years later, Darwin's speculation was supported when anthropologists began finding fossils of ancient small-brained hominins in several areas of Africa list of hominina fossils. The hypothesis of recent as opposed to archaic African origin developed in the 20th century. The "Recent African origin" of modern humans means "single origin" monogenism and has been used in various contexts as an antonym to polygenism.
The debate in anthropology had swung in favour of monogenism by the midth century. Isolated proponents of polygenism held forth in the midth century, such as Carleton Coon , who thought as late as that H. The historical alternative to the recent origin model is the multiregional origin of modern humans , initially proposed by Milford Wolpoff in the s.
The hominins who made tools at Attirampakkam made a wide variety of items, some of which closely resembled the Middle Paleolithic style that emerged in Africa around , years ago.
Ancient tools found in India undermine the “out of Africa” hypothesis
The Middle Paleolithic marks a cultural shift when humans began to make smaller, more complicated tools, often requiring toolmakers to shape their stones in a multi-stage process. Before the Middle Paleolithic, hominins created biface tools, or simple, heavy hand axes shaped like teardrops. A traditional "out of Africa" hypothesis holds that early humans in India were essentially stuck in the biface age, making their elementary axes until modern Homo sapiens swarmed the subcontinent about , years ago and brought the wonders of Middle Paleolithic tools to everyone. Except Pappu and her team found a mix of bifaces and Middle Paleolithic tools at Attirampakkam.
Somehow, African and Indian hominins were developing the same toolmaking skills at roughly the same time. This changes our understanding of human development and ancient migration patterns. There is no doubt that a massive number of modern humans poured out of Africa about , years ago. But they weren't necessarily as important to global cultural development as we might think. It's possible that hominins from Africa started traveling to India almost , years ago, bringing new ideas about tool technologies along with them.
Out of Africa, some of India’s plans
Pappu and her colleagues point out in their paper that the Attirampakkam site was active during at least two periods when the climate would have allowed easy crossing from Africa to Eurasia, through a transcontinental jungle rich with food and other resources. Of course, it's also possible that the Middle Paleolithic tools at Attirampakkam are an example of convergent evolution, where two separate cultures hit upon the same innovations at roughly the same time. We don't have enough evidence yet to say which hypothesis is more likely, but Pappu's research is yet another hint that modern Homo sapiens culture was evolving outside Africa as well as within it.
Also, we have to use the designation " Homo sapiens " carefully here. Pappu and her team note in their paper that only one archaic human fossil, the Narmada cranium , has ever been discovered in India. That leaves plenty of gaps in the record. Attirampakkam is strewn with the results of human productivity, but there are no fossils to tell us who these humans were. An early ancestor, like Homo erectus or the Narmada human? Possibly Neanderthals or Denisovans, who were both roaming Eurasia at the time?
A new study by researchers at the University of Salford has shown that fossils are likely to be key to fulfilling a prediction made by Charles Darwin more than years ago. Thyalacoleo carnifex, the "marsupial lion" of Pleistocene Australia, was an adept hunter that got around with the help of a strong tail, according to a study released December 12, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE The names may vary—medicine man, witch doctor, holy man, prophet—but the notion of the shaman, someone who uses trance to commune with the supernatural and effect real-world change, is one that crosses virtually all cultural Please sign in to add a comment.
Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Moroccan fossil find rearranges Homo sapiens family tree June 8, This week's unveiling of the oldest-known Homo sapiens remains has painted an excitingly chaotic picture of what Earth was like , years ago—bustling with hominin species that included a very early version of our own, International academic 'Santa survey' shows children stop believing in Father Christmas aged eight December 14, It's that time of year when children look forward to a stocking full of presents—but the first international academic "Santa survey" shows many adults also wish they still believed in Father Christmas and some had felt Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank.
I wonder if the Toba volcanic eruption ended this period of hominid colonization of the India sub-continent? Some researchers claim that the Toba event drastically reduced the hominid population to just a few thousand of our Homo Anthropophagus ancestors. However, other researchers are claiming not to find a widespread extinction event among other animals or plantlife. It has been my unverifiable opinion that there was a lot more migration via rivers and along coastlines with dugouts or rafts. And that was what made them vulnerable to a major volcano blowing off with concurrent tsunamis.
As the article states, the Indian subcontinent is very poorly-known archaeologically. That's a great pity, because good look at the map shows that it's an excellent candidate for an eastward migration route. As is so often the case, the operant phrase is "stay tuned.
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Lack of fossils proves nothing. India is a hot, humid subcontinent FILLED with plants and animals that would have happily dined on whatever remains anybody or anything left after gettin' killed. Gettin killed was the usual fate of hominids,nins or anything animal or vegetable in that area of the world and is still so today. So fossils, if thay even exist, should be few and far between. This lends credence to the theory that we are a synthesis of a native species and an alien species bioengineered into WHO we are today.
Such was probably done in a lab that is under the Persian Gulf, if it yet exists. As we go to space, we should try to find the other half of who we are. The truth is out there! Out of Africa hypothesis is not science, it is a political doctrine masquerading as such. Yes, genetic analysis is sooo political. You mean the same genetic analysis that Jews claim make them a "people".
Once again, comments on an interesting article descend quickly into insanity and straight-up ignorance. Yes, the bigoted comments are further proof to my assertion that the evolution of intelligence is a dead-ended failure. I thought it was a religion Oh they are a people when convenient and a religion when not?
The Middle Paleolithic toolbox
I guess this geneticist is a fraud huh? What does bigotry have to do with failure? Are lions bigots for viciously favoring their own feline genetics? Are Slave making ants failures for being bigoted towards their own species and enslaving their own "kind"? You really are naive. You are just weaponizing words for political points, too bad you wield a limp noodle. No, you are a bigot since you deny your own genetics. All humans are obviously a single species, unlike your contrived examples. What are you getting at?
What are you trying to justify. You seem to want to split up humans into different species, why? Species do not exist. The idea of speciation is a social construct created arbitrarily by "scientists" to measure likeness of organisms. You are deluding yourself if you actually think speciation is some sort of natural set in stone marker for seperating the relatedness of organisms to one another.
I could argue that bees are actually an expression of flowering plants, but you would classify them as different life forms. The real question then becomes, why are you opposed to humans being classified as being made of various sub species? The answer is most certainly related to emotional and political motivations. For instance you have Species: I really dont understand the mind games you play with yourselves. This is why speciation is a joke and should not be taken serious by any real critical thinkers.
Just because there is not some clear line that can be drawn between some species does not mean that a species does not exist, your logic fails. Speciation happens gradually, of course there is no set in stone line, so what? Different species, different life forms, call them what you want, they still exist. You sure could try to argue that bees are actually an expression of plants, but you would fail. You still have not addressed the reasoning behind the classification of wolves and even dogs as separate species.
Yet humans are somehow immune to speciation despite being genetically more "diverse". Because it is not true, science proves it. Why would I not oppose a false concept? OK, I see your mistake. Human genetic diversity is substantially lower than that of many other species and the out of Africa theory has been proven correct by genetics. You said "Just because there is not some clear line that can be drawn between some species does not mean that a species does not exist" This tells me and any real intelligent person that you are drawing the lines of species arbitrarily.